Type 1 Diabetes

A disease in which the body does not produce insulin, and it must be taken to survive. Not caused by lifestyle.

Type 2 Diabetes

Occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or insulin is not used efficiently. Also comes from years of high insulin levels in the body causing insulin resistance and subsequent Diabetes. Affected by lifestyle.

  • Occurs mainly in adults over 30 years of age.
  • Gradual onset and slow progression of symptoms; many people have diabetes for 5-10 years before the are diagnosed, because they notice no symptoms. Generally, these individuals already have complications when they are diagnosed.
  • Fatigue is a common symptom.
  • Initially, one does not need insulin to survive, but approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes will eventually require insulin.

Pre-Diabetes or Insulin Resistance

The body has elevated blod sugars for 4-5 years before becoming diabetic. Currently it is a fasting blog sugar reading > 110, but the American Diabetes Association is considering lowering it to fasting blood sugar > 100.

Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes include:

  • Family history of Diabetes
  • More than 20 percent over ideal body weight
  • Race (American Indian, Hispanic, or African American)
  • Over 30 years age
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Women with a history of gestational diabetes or those who delivered a baby > 9 pounds
  • Physical inactivity
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome:

  • This affects 70 million Americans significantly increases your risk of heart disease and heart attacks, and needs aggressive lifestyle modifications.
  • The four principle components of the syndrome are obesity, diabetes or insulin resistance, elevated cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure.
  • It is diagnosed by fasting triglyceride levels greater than 200, fasting HDL cholesterol less than 35, blood pressure greater than 145/90, being overweight by 15 percent or more, and fasting blood sugar level greater than 110 mg/dl or greater than 140 two hours after drinking a glucose solution.
  • Fight Metabolic Syndrome by eating mono- and polyunsaturated fats, eating controlled portion sizes, exercising, losing weight, and taking the medications you are prescribed.

Insulin's Role in the Body

Insulin is produced in the body in response to ingested sugar or complex and simple carbohydrates. Insulin is like a "key" which opens "doors" to your cells. When these "doors" are open, the broken down sugar, protein, carbohydrates or fats in your blood stream after a meal can enter the cells and be used for energy or be stored and used later.

Carbohydrates are classified as either simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates are things like fruit and candy that can be quickly broken down into sugar and enter the blood stream swiftly. Complex carbohydrates are foods such as vegetables and grains. These are broken down slowly and, therefore, take longer to enter the blood stream.

in 1900, the average American consumed 4 ounces of sugar per year. In 1950, the average rose to 5 pounds per person, per year. In 1970 it was 132 pounds, and in 1998 the average American got 152 pounds of added sugar per year.

Teh human body was not designed to continually handle this type of chronic high sugar consumption, and consequently, high insulin pouring into the blood stream. After years and years in this condition, on can develop "insulin resistance," with the next stage being Type 2 Diabetes. In the 1990's, the presence of Type 2 Diabetes jumped 76 percent among people in their 30s. In the past, Type 2 Diabetes was seen mainly in people 45 or older. Teenagers are now being diagnosed with the disease as obesity and inactivity rise.

Chronic High Levels of Insulin Cause:

  • Heartburn
  • Insomnia
  • Excessive weight gain
  • Osteoporosis
  • Heart Disease
  • Migraines
  • High cholesterol and triglycerides
  • Fatigue
  • Carbohydrate cravings
  • Depression and mood swings
  • Insulin resistance which leads to Type 2 Diabetes

Nutrition and Lifestyle Habits That Increase Insulin Levels

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine (soft drinks, coffee, tea)
  • Diet pills
  • Excessive or unnecessary thyroid replacement therapy
  • Lack of exercise
  • Steroids
  • Stimulant and other recreational drugs
  • Tobacco
  • Eating when not hungry

How to Fill Out Food Sheets - Live Class

1. Write your name and date at the top of the first sheet of the set.

2. Use one sheet per day. Leave space between meals for comments.

3. Bring your food sheets with a self-addressed, stamped envelope, to class each week. The class will review the food sheets together at week2. You will hand them in at the scales all other weeks, and your instructor will mail them back to you.

4. List the quantity of all foods eaten. You do not have to weight food, but be as exact as you can. If you have eaten out, please write in the name of the restaurant.

Examples: Burger King
1. 3/4 Whopper
2. 12 fries

Examples: El Chico
1. 5 Chips and hot sauce
2. 2/3 burrito
3. 2 bites beans
4. 1 bite of friend's enchilada

5. If eating at home: write 1 tablespoon (T.) or 1 serving spoon (SP) serving quantity

6. Very Important: List the foods in the order they were eaten. Write Number 1, Number 2, Number 3 etc. beside each food eaten. Foods must be eaten one at a time.

Why are food sheets important?

The food sheets will enable you and your instructor to see your eating patterns, food chioces, and quantities. Being aware of these choices and patterns will enable you to make the changes that can guarantee you becoming a slim eater forever.

Write on your food sheets as many comments as you like about your eating

For example: "felt dissatisfied after this food." "Ate too much." "Could have stopped sooner." "So surprised that i didn't eat all of this food, I used to stuff myself on this" etc.

What Causes People To Be Overweight

  • Going on diets, regaining, dieting again.
  • Eating fast and chewing fast.
  • Having an elevated appetite.
  • Eating when you are not hungry.
  • Not knowing the difference between appetite and hunger.
  • Eating to prevent getting hungry.
  • Not knowing how to stop eating when comfortable.
  • Eating around feelings when you are not hungry.
  • Having fattening beliefs about mealtime; eating and responding to them.
  • Having foods you "should" eat and foods "shouldn't" eat. Restrictive eating.
  • Eating foods in "unthinking combinations."
  • Not understanding the impact of sugar in the diet.
  • Habitual fascination with food

When these issues are removed from a person's eating and a person's life, then the overweight problem will be resolved.

Grocery List


  • Brocolli
  • Dark Leafy Greens (spinach, kale, etc.)
  • Carrots
  • Onions
  • Garlic


  • Apples
  • Bananas
  • Oranges/Tangerines
  • Strawberries
  • Blueberries
  • Peaches/Plums/Nectarines
  • Raisins


  • Salmon/Orange Roughy/Tuna
  • Skinless Turkey Breasts
  • Ground round or extra lean ground beef

Canned Foods

  • Tuna/salmon/chicken (water-packed)
  • Beans
  • Evaporated skim milk
  • Tomato Sauce
  • Canned fruits in light syrup


  • Bread
  • Bagels/English Muffins
  • Bread Crumbs/Corn Flakes Crumbs
  • Shredded Wheat/Nutri-Grain
  • Brown Rice
  • Pasta/Noodles


  • Olive Oil/Canola Oil
  • Low-fat salad dressing
  • Low-sodium soy sauce

Frozen Foods

  • Vegetables
  • Waffles/pancakes
  • Frozen Entrees
  • Fruit

Dairy Products

  • Yogurt
  • 1% or fat-free cottage cheese
  • 1% of skim milk
  • Low-fat/fat-free sour cream

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Tyrone-Alexandre Roy, Professional Football Player

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Melody Murphy Ed. D. Director, Shelton State CC

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